KAJIAN PENGARUH SUHU DAN WAKTU EKSTRAKSI TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK PEKTIN KULIT JERUK PONTIANAK UNTUK PEMBUATAN EDIBLE COATING

Tjhang Winny K, M. Anastasia Ari M

Sari


Pontianak citrus is a local fruit commodity of West Kalimantan. Production of pontianak oranges in 2011 and 2012 is up to 1,171,880 tons and 1,498,396 tons, respectively. Approximately 50-60% of citrus fruits will become orange peel waste, potentially causing large quantities of waste accumulation. One effort that can be done to reduce the environmental impact of orange leather waste is to utilize pectin from orange peel waste as raw material in making edible coating. Edible coating is a thin layer used to coat the product or be placed between products that can serve to protect the product from mechanical damage by reducing the transmission of water vapor, aroma, enzymatic browning reaction, and respiration of packaged foodstuff (Erica, 2012). Edible film can control the influence of ethylene gas as an internal factor and O2 gas as an external factor of fruit decay. It aims to maintain the quality of the fruit so as to increase its economic value in the agricultural sector.This study aims to determine the effect of temperature and time of pectin extraction on pectin rendemen, to know the optimum temperature and time of extraction to the highest yield and to know the pectin characteristic obtained from pectin extraction with optimum temperature and time. Using Completely Randomized Design, data processing using Anova Test. Treatment variations were temperature 45, 55, 65, 75, 85, and 95 oC. Furthermore, variation of extract time 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minutes using the optimum temperature (75 oC).The results showed that the lowest yield was obtained at the temperature of 45 oC extraction of 1.79%, while the highest yield was obtained at 75 oC extract temperature of 20.48%. . The highest yield was obtained at 60 minutes extraction time of 27.54%, while the lowest yield at the time of extraction of 15 minutes was 2.75%. There is a noticeable effect of temperature and time on the yield of pectin. The characteristics of pectin produced at 75oC extraction temperature, 60 minutes, water content (4.79%), ash content (0.72%), equivalent weight (7940.79 mg), and methoxyl content (2.81%) . The characteristics of pectin produced have met the standard of pectin quality

Teks Lengkap:

PDF

Referensi


Alexandra, Yongki dan Nurlina., 2014, Aplikasi Edible Coating dari Pektin Jeruk Songhi Pontianak (Citrus Nobilis Var Microcarpa) pada Penyimpanan Buah Tomat, J. Kimia Khatulistiwa, Vol 3(4): 11-20.

Anonim. 2015. Kalimantan Barat dalam Angka. BPS Kalimantan Barat. Pontianak.

Bourtoom, T., 2008, Review: Article Edible films and Coatings: Charateristics and Properties, J. International Food Research, Vol 15(3): 237-248.

Comitee of Committee of Food Chemicals Codex, Food and Nutrition Board. 1996. Food Chemical Codex. 4th edition. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

Erica, Deby., 2012, Pengaruh CaCl2 terhadap Warna dan Cita Rasa Buah Pepaya Kupas Menggunakan Edible Coating pada Penyimpanan Suhu Kamar, Universitas Andalas Padang.

Goycoolea, F.M. dan Andriana Cardenas, 2003..Pectin from Opuntia Spp., A Short Review. Journal of The Profesional Association for Cactus development, (J.PACD).17-29).

Hariyati. M. N., 2006, Ekstraksi dan Karakterisasi Pektin Limbah Proses Pengolahan Jeruk Pontianak, IPB. (Skripsi)

Kristiyani, Fanny. 2008. Pengaruh pH, Suhu, dan Jenis Pelarut Terhadap Karakteristik Kimia Pektin “Albedo Jeruk Bali” (Citrus maxima merr).Semarang: Unika.

Sulihono, Andreas. 2012. Pengaruh Waktu, Temperatur, dan Jenis Pelarut terhadap Ekstraksi Pektin dari Kulit Jeruk Bali (Citrus maxima). Jurnal Teknik Kimia. No. 4, Vol. 18. Tarigan, M.A; Farida, H; dan Irza, M.D.K., 2012, Ekstraksi Pektin dari Kulit Pisang Raja (Musa sapientum), Jurnal Teknik Kimia USU, Vol. 1, No. 2.

Towle, G.A. dan O. Christensen. 1973. Pectin. Di dalam R.L Whistler (ed.) Industrial Gum.AcademicPress,NewYork